Icon: Resemble’s its Reference. For example, we represent this icon with mail.
Index: Associated with its Referent.
(Imagine an alarm and smoke)
Symbol: Associated only by Convention, a learnt meaning that wouldn’t necessarily be partnered with the image representing.
Pictogram: An Image that represents an object. The cross represents first aid.
Ideogram: Represents a complete idea of concept; no smoking.
Rebus: An image that represents a sound. This is an example from Paul Rand, a groundbreaking graphic designer. It was created in 1981 to support IBM’s motto; THINK.
Phonogram: A symbol that represents a sound.
Culture Jamming: Commentary and/or parody. An example of this is Jonathan Barnbrook’s Olympukes series which, I have to say, is rather amusing.
Logotype: Compromised entirely of typography.
Isotopes: A infographic of complex information which tells a visual story. Gerd Antz was an infamous infographic designer whom looked at complex information and how you can sum it up using visual representatives.